Every Fire Resue Professional Is a Leader

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: i ELevaedryerFire-Rescue Professional Is A 1st Edition A Practical Guide for Individual, Team, and Organization Development. Co-Authors: Pat Lynch, Ph.D. Kenneth D. Gisborne, MA, CPP Terry D. Anderson, Ph.D. With Forewords By: Len Garis, Fire Chief (Ret’d) Fire Chief, (Ret’d), Surrey Fire Service, Vancouver, BC Adjunct Professor - School of Culture, Media, and Society, University of the Fraser Valley Associate Scientist Emeritus, BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit Jeff Johnson, Fire Chief (Ret’d) Fire Chief, (Ret’d), Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue (OR) President, International Association of Fire Chiefs (2009-2010) Executive Director, Western Fire Chiefs Association Contributing Authors: Mitch Javidi, Ph.D. Anthony Normore, Ph.D. Gerard Rossy, Ph.D. Editor and Book Design: Kenneth D. Gisborne, MA, CPP

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: ii A note to the readers of this book. Throughout the book, there are hypertext links intended for the DIGITAL version of the book that provide quick access to rich content that supports key information, ideas and/or reference sources. Where there is a hypertext link without the web address specifically quoted in the text, the corresponding web address has been referenced and detailed in the Resources section at the end of the book. Note This book is offered with available companion Field Guides that provide ready reference to Transforming Leadership skills and Emergent Fire-Rescue skill sets. For interview, expert(s), or permission requests, email: pat@pat-lynch.com. ©Copyright 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader: Pat Lynch, Ph.D., Kenneth D. Gisborne, MA, and Terry D. Anderson, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the authors. The Transforming Leadership Principles and the 60 Leadership Skills Framework are the copyright of Consulting Resource Group International Inc. and used with permission. No use or application outside of this book is permitted without written permission from CRG. Order this book online at www.CommandCollege.org or email your order request to: info@CommandCollege.org Published in the United States of America PRINT ISBN: 978-1-7377855-5-2 DIGITAL ISBN: 978-1-7377855-6-9 Publisher: Readiness Network, Inc., www.CommandCollege.org (919) 753-1127

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: iii Table of Contents Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader A Practical Guide for Individual, Team, and Organization Development Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Front Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Forewords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What people have to say about this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 What’s in it for you to read this book? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 What makes this book unique and timely? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Where did the information for the book come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 How is the book laid out? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A final word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Story Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 List of Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 1. Transforming Leadership and the Fire-Rescue Service . . . . . . . .19 The premise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The challenge of recognizing leadership skills when you see them . . . . . . . . . . 20 The three-step approach to developing leadership skills: What, why should I, and how to? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Storytelling: An honorable and valuable fire-rescue tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Closing thoughts on leadership skills for fire-rescue professionals . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. The Transforming Leadership Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: iv Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Why transforming leadership? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Traditional leadership vs. transforming leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 How do we make the transition from traditional to transforming leadership? 29 Structure of the remainder of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 3. Personal Mastery Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Skills Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 What are Personal Mastery Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Skill # 1 Grounding: Focusing awareness in the present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Skill # 2 Centering: Including self in the context of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Skill # 3 Beliefs clarification and resolution: Taking a stance on life’s basic issues . . . . . 45 Skill # 4 Specifying your personal purpose and vision: A critical life skill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Skill # 5 Identifying your values: Setting priorities in life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Skill # 6 Life planning to provide motivation and balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Skill # 7 Education planning: Setting motivational goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Skill # 8 Career planning: Setting motivational goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Skill # 9 Time and priority management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Skill # 10 Stress management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Skill # 11 Energy management for improved health and performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Skill # 12 Positive mental attitude: Inner skill of the winner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4. Interpersonal Communication and Conflict Management Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Skills Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 What are interpersonal communication and conflict management skills? . . . . 84 Skill # 13 Self-disclosure: Sharing appropriately with others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Skill # 14 Image management: Taking responsibility for how you see yourself . . . . . . . . 89 Skill # 15 Impression management: Taking responsibility for how others see you . . . . . . 93 Skill # 16 Attending: Giving undivided attention to others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Skill # 17 Observing: Seeing another person without distorting or judging . . . . . . . . . . 100 Skill # 18 Suspending your frame of reference: The key to the Platinum Rule . . . . . . . . 104 Skill # 19 Questioning: Appropriate gathering of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Skill # 20 Listening: Checking for others’ intended meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Skill # 21 Responding with understanding: Getting on the inside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Skill # 22 Assertiveness: Speaking honestly and kindly with self-control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Skill # 23 Confrontation: Telling people the truth about unacceptable behavior . . . . . . 122 Skill # 24 Challenging: Helping others see strengths and opportunities and move toward positive change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 5. Coaching Skills for Problem and Opportunity Management . .131 Skills Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 What are coaching skills for problem and opportunity management? . . . . . . 132

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: v Skill # 25 Advanced empathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Skill # 26 Problem/opportunity exploration: Facilitating the exploration of others’ external and internal problems or opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Skill # 27 Problem/opportunity specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Skill # 28 Problem/opportunity ownership: Helping ourselves and others own up . . . . 143 Skill # 29 Goal setting: Identifying realistic and motivating targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Skill # 30 Goal ownership: Fundamental to getting commitment to action . . . . . . . . . . 150 Skill # 31 Action planning: Exploring and evaluating specific pathways for achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Skill # 32 Implementing action plans: Increasing the success rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Skill # 33 Confrontation: Facing and helping others face self-defeating behaviors . . . . . 159 Skill # 34 Self-sharing: Giving others additional perspective with your own story . . . . . 162 Skill # 35 Immediacy: Helping people get unstuck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Skill # 36 Making an effective referral to a professional helper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 6. Team and Organization Development Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Skills Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 What are team and organization development skills? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Skill # 37 Informal assessment: Walking around talking with people . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Skill # 38 Formal assessment: Research, interviewing, and reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Skill # 39 Change management facilitation: Leading teams through resistance to change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Skill # 40 Need clarification: Making plain the need for change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Skill # 41 Readiness-checking: Overcoming the real blocks to change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Skill # 42 Values alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Skill # 43 Vision and purpose consensus-building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Skill # 44 Strategy consensus-building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Skill # 45 Implementation planning: Specifying and implementing steps, dates, and people to expedite goal achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Skill # 46 Assessing team performance on strategic initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Skill # 47 Leading teams toward continuous learning for continuous improvement . . . 214 Skill # 48 Building accountability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 7. Versatility Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Skills Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 What are versatility skills? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Skill # 49 Assessment of personal styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Skill # 50 Personal style shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Skill # 51 Assessment of roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Skill # 52 Role shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Skill # 53 Assessment of skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Skill # 54 Skill shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Skill # 55 Recognition of team and organization development stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Skill # 56 Facilitation of team and organization development stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: vi Skill # 57 Formation and facilitation of a cross-functional continuous improvement team: Process problems and leverage opportunities in the organization 252 Skill # 58 Assessment of leadership skills to help yourself and others plan for further development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Skill # 59 Coaching other leaders to become more effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Skill # 60 Lead environmental scanning and initiate proactive responses to future trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Part 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271 8. Application of Emergent Skills Sets for Fire-Rescue Professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 Emergent Skill Sets Location in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 What are emergent skill sets? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 What’s in it for fire-rescue professionals to become proficient in applying the emergent skill sets? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 What do these emergent skill sets have to do with leadership for fire-rescue professionals? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Skill Set # 1 Business acumen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Skill Set # 2 Political acumen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Skill Set # 3 Strategic acumen: Identifying and achieving a public safety vision through long-term initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Skill Set # 4 Change leadership: Navigating and steering forward progress through a VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous) world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Skill Set # 5 Branding and marketing: Identifying and communicating your agency’s mission and value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Skill Set # 6 Recruitment and retention: Attracting and keeping the best qualified people 302 Skill Set # 7 Bench strength development: Setting up yourself, other personnel, and your agency for success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Skill Set # 8 Collaboration and relationship building: Creating the foundation for success and interoperability effectiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Skill Set # 9 Stakeholder education: Enabling internal and external stakeholders to make informed decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Skill Set # 10 Responders’ safety, health, and mental fitness: Prioritizing the well-being of the whole person – body, mind, spirit – starting with yourself . . . . . . . 332 Skill Set # 11 Inclusion and equity: Enabling people to feel they belong and are treated fairly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Skill Set # 12 Communication in a VUCA world: Conveying your messages effectively in new ways and to new audiences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Part 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 9. Opportune Leaders: Stepping Up to Meet the Challenge . . . . . .361 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 The Paramedic: San Diego Brush Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: vii The Firefighter/Lead Paramedic: Special Assistant to the Fire Chief . . . . . . . . 364 The Company Officer: LODD Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 The Company Officer: LODD Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 The Company Officer: Harvest Country Music Festival Mass Shooting . . . . . . 374 The Battalion Chief: Columbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 The Division Chief: Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 The Fire Chief: Preventable Cardiac Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 The Fire Chief: Eradicating the Stigma of Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 The Department: COVID-19 Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 10. Ethical Decision-Making for Fire-Rescue Professionals . . . . . 397 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Unethical acts vs. ethical mistakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 What’s in it for you to become proficient in recognizing and preventing ethical lapses? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Relevance of ethics and ethical decision-making to leadership for fire-rescue professionals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Ethical frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Ethical decision-making tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 Core Principles of Ethical Leadership: CHAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 What Would You Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 11. The Magnanimous You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 What’s in it for fire-rescue professionals to aspire to the MAGNUS virtues? . 413 What are the MAGNUS values? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Behavioral indicators of becoming MAGNUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Suggestions about how to develop and/or use these virtues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 Final thoughts about the MAGNUS journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 12. A Call To Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Reality in 2023 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Final Thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Part 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 A. Skills Master Assessment Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 B. Transforming Leadership Styles Support Material . . . . . . . . . . 437 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 Understanding the Four Personal Style Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: viii General Style Tendencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 Style Shifting Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 C. Firefighter Decision-Making Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Decision Making Tool - Empty with Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Decisions Making Tool - Example Data Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 D. Performance Indicator Worksheet and Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Figure 1: Performance Indicator Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 Figure 2: Completed Performance Indicator Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 E. Codes of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451 Firefighter Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 IAFC Fire Service Professional Code of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 F. Self-Assessments: Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457 Self-Assessment: Organizational Ethical Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 Self-Assessment: The Application of Personal Ethical Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . 459 G. Emergent Skill Set Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Emergent Skill Set Matrix - Skills 1 to 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Emergent Skill Set Matrix - Skills 24 to 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Emergent Skill Set Matrix - Skills 49 to 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Book Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465 Resources and Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 1 of 492 Front Matter Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader In addition to the dedication and forewords, this section describes the evolution of this book, including its purpose, how it is relevant the fire-rescue service, and what makes it worth reading. A list of the forty-plus fire-rescue professionals who generously shared their stories that bring the leadership skills to life may be found here as well as a list of acronyms. 1.1 Dedication This book is dedicated to the memory of Long Beach (CA) Fire Department Captain David Rosa, who was shot and killed on June 25, 2018 by the resident of a downtown high-rise senior apartment building who intentionally set the fire that brought firefighters to the rescue. Even in a department full of exceptional leaders, Captain Rosa stood out. This book also is dedicated to fire-rescue professionals everywhere who devote their lives to serving their communities with a servant’s heart, without hesitation, every day. Thank you for your service. 1.2 Forewords 1.2.1 Len Garis, Fire Chief (ret’d) After more than 35 years in the fire service, one of the most valuable lessons I learned along the way was to acknowledge I was not an expert at everything and, just as important, to have the courage to admit what I don’t know. It’s a particularly important lesson for fire service leaders, who by default are often viewed as experts. When called upon, they feel compelled to weigh in. My dear friend and mentor Bill Tracy – an engineer I met when I started at Surrey Fire Service in 1998 – brought to mind some sage advice he gave me many years ago. I was Surrey’s new Assistant Fire Chief when our paths first crossed. I had come from one of the smaller communities, Pitt Meadows, where I had worked my way up through the ranks to the ninth largest City in Canada. Indeed, Surrey

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 2 of 492 had some of the toughest issues I had to face in the beginning and over the years that followed. Bill was a consultant who had been awarded a contract to help develop corporate decisions for dispatch and radio communications for Surrey’s fire and police departments. I was assigned to lead that decision with Bill by my side. There was a lot on the line – in the preceding few years the City had spent $3.5 million on a fire department radio system that did not work as expected. Over one of our many lunches to discuss solutions, I asked Bill how it was possible to spend all that money on a radio system that is not working. Bill, in his direct tone, said: “The hamburger you just finished, Len, you ordered it the way you like it, right? Deluxe with bacon and lettuce and mustard. But you did not specify the type of cow or the diet for the cow, nor did you advise the chemist who developed the formula for the mustard. Your colleagues who preceded you tried to specify what only an engineer can do. They would have been better to order a $3.5 million hamburger.” Bill went on to say, “A person has got to know his/ her limitations. Well, Len, you will be well served in your career to surround yourself with people who can provide you with advice In the areas that you are not an expert in. Your hamburgers will taste better, and they will be reasonably priced.” I retired as Surrey’s Fire Chief in July 2019, having had a great career with the advice of Bill and others ever-present in my mind. I owe Bill a debt of friendship and gratitude. Thanks to his great advice and support, I was not afraid to acknowledge my limitations and compensate accordingly. Leadership in the fire service has its formidable challenges, and like most paramilitary organizations, has a strong cultural bias that can and will influence our values and belief systems. Fire service leaders may be selected for their experience, their academic background, or a blend of both, but they will have to contend with a wide variety of expectations, perceptions, and biases – sometimes conflicting – from their subordinates, the community they serve, their administration and elected officials. How they navigate all of this will become a factor in their success in this role. It can be a rich and filling career in leadership, or it can be stormy and fraught with uncertainty and conflict. Throughout the good and bad times faced by a leadership role, individual courage, managing uncertainty and persistence are essential. By its very nature, leadership in the fire service at any level carries enormous responsibilities and expectations. Lives in our communities and among our staff will depend on the leader’s good judgment and compassion to do the right thing. Managing Fire Services is incredibility complex, from debates around cost versus value to post-traumatic stress and occupational diseases like cancer.

What people have to say about this book Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 3 of 492 Every Fire-Rescue Professional is a Leader is a carefully crafted recipe that entwines practical experience and modern academic leadership science, laying out the foundation for a leader or an aspiring leader at any level or rank to be successful. Len Garis: Fire Chief (ret’d) City of Surrey, Canada Senior Advisor - Canadian Centre for Justice and Community Safety Statistics at Statistics Canada Adjunct Professor - University of the Fraser Valley Associate Scientist Emeritus - BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit Member - Affiliated Research Faculty at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York 1.2.2 Jeff Johnson, Fire Chief (ret’d) It has been too long since an author addressed the entire range of leadership competencies that are essential for today’s fire and rescue service professional...but now that wait is over! Dr. Pat Lynch has an incredibly diverse background as an entrepreneur, professor, and consultant which, combined with her public safety foundation, informed her practical leadership insights. Dr. Lynch has an academic background with undergraduate work in Sociology, an MBA in Economics and Ph.D. in Personnel and Employment Relations which collectively inform her street savvy with academic insights often missing from leadership texts. Having served as a leader at all levels of the local, national and international public safety community, I can say definitively that Dr. Lynch’s book is insightful, relevant and comprehensive. You will find answers between these covers rather than oblique philosophies. I think this book is a must read for any aspiring public safety professional! Jeff Johnson, Fire Chief (ret’d), Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue (OR) President - International Association of Fire Chiefs (2009-2010) Executive Director - Western Fire Chiefs Association 1.3 What people have to say about this book 1.3.1 From Chief John Buckman: The information in Every Fire-Rescue Professional is a Leader: A Practical Guide to Individual, Team, and Organization Development is relevant, real, and able to be implemented. There is so much material in here that you have created the Leadership Handbook for every fire-rescue person who wants to be successful. The leader of the future will want this book on their desk. Those who are currently in a leadership role should have this book within reach for reference purposes. This is not a book that you could look at occasionally; instead, it is a reference book for accomplishing tasks and minimizing problems before they become

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 4 of 492 problems. You have covered most scenarios that fire-rescue leaders encounter frequently. Leadership is not a one size fits all and this book provides a set of skills that each reader can choose the skills they want to improve. The #1 job of a leader is to achieve results. Leaders achieve results by engaging others to buy into their ideas. If leaders understand this simple concept, things will fall into place. This book gives you the information and the tools to become more successful at leading. Reading this book was overwhelming. Leaders who pick up this book will need to develop a plan to implement the ideas in the book. You have hit a grand slam with this book. John M. Buckman III Grandfather, Photographer, Author, Trainer, Fire Chief (Retired). IAFC President 2001-2002 1.3.2 From Firefighter James Rychard: Dr. Pat Lynch has hit it out of the park. For fire service leaders who are looking to uncover a leadership book that weaves in stories of the fire service traditions with real, ethical, and moral successful business practices – look no further. As the famous adage goes, “When the student is ready, the teacher appears.” Every Fire-Rescue Professional is a Leader: A Practical Guide to Individual, Team, and Organization Development is that teacher. No fire service leader should be without a copy. It is not just about knowing the skills needed, but how and why they need to be applied. Dr. Lynch takes you on that journey. From an athletic perspective, a coach needs a playbook to be effective and responsive to run a successful team for the present and for the future. Fire service leaders too need a playbook that makes them more effective and responsive. This is it! James Rychard Firefighter, Burlington Fire Department (Canada) CAFC Mental Health and Best Practices Committee Member 1.3.3 From Chief (retired) Steve Prziborowski: Dr. Lynch has hit a home run with her new book, Every Fire-Rescue Professional is a Leader: A Practical Guide to Individual, Team, and Organization Development! Current and future leaders from all ranks and all types of organizations, not just the fire and emergency services, can benefit from the valuable information within. Being a leader in today’s world is not for the faint of heart, nor is it for those who do not possess the courage under fire to step up and be the leader they are expected to be. This is a must read regardless of where you are in your career, and also a great resource to share with others who may benefit. Additionally it is an outstanding road map and collection of lessons learned from many fire service professionals and leaders from around the country!

Preface Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 5 of 492 Steve Prziborowski Deputy Chief (retired), Santa Clara County (CA) Fire Department 1.3.4 From Chief Alicia Welch (retired): Every Fire-Rescue Professional is a Leader: A Practical Guide to Individual, Team, and Organization Development is a book that is extremely useful for any fire-rescue or EMS professional to read and refer to, regardless of seniority of rank. As the title indicates, the book is designed to enhance individual leadership skills, team skills, or an entire organization’s development. Dr. Pat Lynch does a fantastic job of breaking down every critical leadership skill in a simple and understandable way. She then reinforces those skills with lessons told by fire or EMS professionals. These vignettes are very useful given the difficulty in finding relevant and relatable fire/EMS examples today. Whereas many leadership books suggested to our profession are business or military based, Pat’s book is EMS and fire-rescue based. Another great feature of this book is that it will be useful over a firefighter’s career. Early in their career, mastering positive mental attitude is important. As firefighters mature, they should be more interested in self-discovery, clarifying personal values, and identifying their personal vision and purpose. As professionals enter the officer ranks, they will need to be clear on personal ethics, morals and virtues. Dr. Lynch’s book offers insight at every stage of a fire-EMS person’s career. When I was a new Fire Chief, I found Chapter 8: Application of Emergent Skill Sets for Fire-Rescue Professionals to be the area of most use. Enhancing business and political acumen, engaging in strategic planning, and developing a succession plan are what will set up my department for long-term health and success. Pat’s book is an amazing tool that can be used at any career stage or seniority level, from the probationary firefighter to the tenured chief officer. Fire Chief Alicia Welch (retired) Golden Fire Department (CO) 1.4 Preface Even though my uncle was a volunteer firefighter in Pennsylvania when I was a kid, I had no ties to the fire-rescue service when I received a call from someone at the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) in late 2007 asking if I might be available for an urgent consulting project. Intrigued, I said yes. I ended up working with the Department on a variety of projects for the next six years. But it was what I learned about public safety during that first year that shocked me into resetting my priorities. The recession in the U.S. was just beginning to affect the public sector, and governments at all levels across the country were reacting frantically by slashing

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 6 of 492 their budgets, seemingly with no regard for the impact the cuts would have on public safety. As I started paying more attention to what was going on in my own city of Long Beach as well as nationally, I was appalled at what I perceived to be stupid, short-sighted decisions about how to allocate very scarce resources. Public safety was being decimated, and I was incensed at decision-makers’ widespread ignorance. Yet I came to realize that their folly wasn’t entirely their fault: no one ever had explained to them the impacts of their choices in terms they and the public could understand and fully appreciate. My new mission became clear: to teach fire-rescue professionals how to create and maintain safe, healthy, and economically viable communities by educating themselves and their communities about what it would take to do that. Enabling fire-rescue professionals to keep themselves and their communities safe became my passion. I started speaking at industry conferences, conducting webinars, writing articles, and working with other fire-rescue agencies around the country. So when Dr. Terry Anderson reached out to me to ask if I would be interested in writing a book about leadership skills for fire-rescue professionals, I jumped at the opportunity. 1.5 What’s in it for you to read this book? Here are some reasons why you are likely to find this book worth reading: 1. By virtue of the career that you have chosen, you are a leader. Leadership is not a “preferred” quality in the fire-rescue service, it’s a non-negotiable condition of joining that profession. People trust that you will show up to help them on their darkest – and not so dark – days. They call the fire department when they don’t know who else to call. Years ago a Los Angeles Fire Department captain explained it to me this way: “When people call for help, we always respond. Even when we don’t know what we’re doing, we do something because we’re the fire department and that’s what people expect.” So even though “leadership” probably doesn’t appear in your job description, make no mistake: it is your job. This book will teach you how to develop and improve key leadership skills so you will be prepared when your time comes to step up. 2. As he and I talked about this book, a retired fire chief remarked, “In the fire service we train and train and train our folks in all aspects of the job – except leadership. We just tell them to go be leaders. We don’t teach them how to do that well.” That’s one of the gaps this book fills: the “how to” of leadership skills. As with other types of skills, they can be learned, and then improved with practice. This book will help you be prepared for your leadership roles, formal and informal. 3. People in general often fail to recognize many actions and behaviors that demonstrate leadership. This blind spot may be especially pronounced in

What makes this book unique and timely? Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 7 of 492 fire-rescue professionals, partly because leadership qualities are intrinsic to the job and partly because the skills are part of the DNA of those who are drawn to careers in the fire-rescue service. As I was gathering stories to illustrate the skills in this book, for example, most of the contributors had no idea how many leadership skills were woven throughout the experiences they shared. During our conversations they made comments such as, “I don’t know if this is what you’re looking for.” Yes, it was – thank you. This book will help you fill the “what” gap by enabling you to recognize and define leadership skills, some of which you didn’t know you possessed. 4. More than forty fire-rescue professionals from twenty-four states and two Canadian provinces contributed stories that illustrate the leadership skills in this book. Most of them were uncomfortable talking about themselves, yet because helping others and putting others’ needs before their own is in their DNA, they overcame their reluctance in the name of service to their profession. In the spirit of allowing others to learn from their mistakes, a few disclosed situations in which they didn’t make the best use of a skill at that time but learned and subsequently applied a valuable lesson. You can learn how to emulate their successes and avoid leadership failures. 5. The premise of this book is that at some point, every fire-rescue professional will have to step into a leadership position or role. The ten expanded stories in Chapter 9 detail how individuals who unexpectedly found themselves in that situation responded in ways that had major positive impacts. Will you be ready when your time comes to step up? This book will help you prepare. 1.6 What makes this book unique and timely? There are many books about leadership skills. What makes this one unique? 1. The leadership skills are presented in contexts that are relevant to fire-rescue professionals. For example, each skill or skill set is illustrated by one or more stories contributed by fire-rescue personnel at all ranks and levels. The terminology, examples, and issues throughout the book are familiar to you. 2. The application of each skill or skill set is illustrated by one or more stories. While the primary author often provided context, offered “color commentary,” and sometimes pointed out how the stories demonstrated their respective skills (and takes full responsibility for any errors), the stories are told mainly or completely in the contributors’ own words. As you know, firerescue professionals are consummate story tellers - and those tales often have a point. 3. The book takes a “what,” “why should I,” and “how to” approach that teaches readers the basics of each leadership skill. You wouldn’t tell rookies to throw a ladder during a structure fire – or load a patient on a gurney or answer 911 calls - without first teaching them the steps necessary to com-

Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 8 of 492 plete the task safely and successfully. Equally as important to everyone’s safety is explaining why every one of those steps is necessary. Similarly, in this book we identify and define each skill, provide suggestions about how to develop or improve your proficiency in it, and specify how you would benefit from doing so. 4. Given recent and continuing massive retirements and the recession-related gaps in hiring, many vacated positions necessarily are being filled by people with limited field and leadership experience. Both community members and crews are at risk when the quality of service depends on whether the people on duty on any given day are fully prepared for their roles. This book will accelerate readers’ movement up the steep leadership learning curve. 5. The sixty individual leadership skills presented in chapters 3-7 are researchbased, not just selected at random. Because you cannot learn or teach a skill effectively without defining it and demonstrating what it looks like, we present each one in very concrete ways rather than as abstractions. 6. There are twelve skill sets that represent the application of “emergent” skills – that is, clusters of competencies that fire-rescue professionals either haven’t had to use before or that are applicable in a different context. For example, business acumen and political acumen have become more important since the 2007 recession, as competition for scarce resources became and still remains fierce and as the demand for accountability has increased. Responders’ safety, health, and mental fitness has taken on new urgency as evidence piles up that the “Suck it up, Buttercup” mindset leads unnecessarily to devastating injuries, diseases, and early deaths. Communication in a VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous) world presents new opportunities and challenges in terms of both people and technology. 1.7 Where did the information for the book come from? The contents of this book came from three sources: fire-rescue professionals, public safety academic and practitioner researchers, and my own expertise. The more than forty fire-rescue professionals who contributed stories to illustrate each leadership skill or skill set represent all ranks and levels at a variety of agencies across twenty-four states and two Canadian provinces. Their names and other information may be found in the Acknowledgments section. Although many of them currently are active or retired fire chiefs, their stories often are about others, or they pre-date their own “chief” days. The stories recounted in this book reflect their then-current rank or position and agency. Only a handful of the contributors knew me before I contacted them; the rest agreed to talk with me either because I asked for their help directly or because someone they knew and trusted made an introduction for me.

How is the book laid out? Copyright © 2023. Every Fire-Rescue Professional Is A Leader. All Rights Reserved. Page: 9 of 492 My original plan was to provide one vignette to illustrate each individual skill and a somewhat longer depiction for each emergent skill set because the latter encompasses multiple skills. What I soon discovered, however, is that most of the stories embody multiple leadership skills and lessons and/or illustrate a variety of contexts in which the skills are appropriate. Because the stories’ impacts would be lost or diminished unless placed in their proper context, I had to rethink my plan. As a result, most of the individual skills have more than one story, and many are a bit longer than anticipated. I added a chapter that relates ten stories from fire-rescue professionals of various ranks that are so replete with leadership lessons, skill illustrations, and in some cases the back stories of current fire-rescue service practices, that they must be told in full. That fact should tell you something about the value of the stories that your colleagues have shared for your benefit. Dr. Terry Anderson has been conducting research and writing about leadership for decades. In 1999 he and a number of U.S. and Canadian colleagues from academia, law enforcement, and the military wrote a book for a primarily law enforcement audience based on sixty research-based leadership skills. Now in its fourth edition, the book has been wildly successful, as evidenced by its use by agencies and educational institutions around the world and, more importantly, by data that demonstrate clearly the significant positive impact on public safety in communities where those skills have been implemented. Because leadership skills are transferable across organizations, industries, professions, and individuals, Dr. Anderson asked me to take those sixty skills and put them in a context relevant to fire-rescue professionals. You may learn more about Dr. Anderson, his co-authors, and their book in the Book Contributors section. What I bring to the table is the expertise I’ve accumulated by working with private, public, and non-profit sector organizations for decades, and with fire-rescue agencies since 2007. I freely admit that I never wanted to be a firefighter. In fact, I am deathly afraid of fire, and I have neither the aptitude nor the passion for helping people experiencing medical emergencies. As a result, I don’t do any work in the operational, tactical, or technology areas. However, I can help with almost anything else related to people and organizations. Thus I consider the work I do behind the scenes to enable fire-rescue agencies to elevate the level of public safety in their communities while keeping their own personnel safe and healthy my contribution to public safety. If interested, you may learn more about my background in the Book Contributors section of this book. 1.8 How is the book laid out? Because of its “what,” “why should I,” and “how to” approach, this book is very practical. Though the skills are research-based and there are references to others’ work as appropriate, the content purposefully is written in practical, actionable, non-academic language. Following some introductory information

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